The Intelligent Investor

This classic text is annotated to update Graham’s timeless wisdom for today’s market conditions…

The greatest investment advisor of the twentieth century, Benjamin Graham, taught and inspired people worldwide. Graham’s philosophy of “value investing” — which shields investors from substantial error and teaches them to develop long-term strategies — has made The Intelligent Investor the stock market bible ever since its original publication in 1949.

Over the years, market developments have proven the wisdom of Graham’s strategies. While preserving the integrity of Graham’s original text, this revised edition includes updated commentary by noted financial journalist Jason Zweig, whose perspective incorporates the realities of today’s market, draws parallels between Graham’s examples and today’s financial headlines, and gives readers a more thorough understanding of how to apply Graham’s principles.

Vital and indispensable, this HarperBusiness Essentials edition of The Intelligent Investor is the most important book you will ever read on how to reach your financial goals.

 

The Intelligent Investor

The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness

If you will live like no one else, later you can live like no one else.

Build up your money muscles with America’s favorite finance coach.

Okay, folks, do you want to turn those fat and flabby expenses into a well-toned budget? Do you want to transform your sad and skinny little bank account into a bulked-up cash machine? Then get with the program, people. There’s one sure way to whip your finances into shape, and that’s with The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition.

By now, you’ve heard all the nutty get-rich-quick schemes, the fiscal diet fads that leave you with a lot of kooky ideas but not a penny in your pocket. Hey, if you’re tired of the lies and sick of the false promises, take a look at this—it’s the simplest, most straightforward game plan for completely making over your money habits. And it’s based on results, not pie-in-the-sky fantasies. With The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition, you’ll be able to:

  • Design a sure-fire plan for paying off all debt—meaning cars, houses, everything
  • Recognize the 10 most dangerous money myths (these will kill you)
  • Secure a big, fat nest egg for emergencies and retirement!

Includes new, expanded “Dave Rants” sidebars tackle marriage conflict, college debt, and more. All-new forms and back-of-the-book resources to make Total Money Makeover a reality.

 The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness

Metaphysics – Beyond The Physical into the Spiritual

The universe is governed by natural law, whether physical or spiritual. We are in an orderly universe. The universe was designed and created by a being that can be known as God or infinite intelligence. The father of creation is a being known as God and many other names. The laws of the universe are an extension of his being.

Meta means above, beyond and behind.

Metaphysical means beyond the physical realm and into the spiritual realm. The metaphysical and physical realm are not two separate realities but they are just different levels of the same reality.

Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of all reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, appearance and substance, form and essence.

To call one a metaphysician in this traditional, philosophical sense indicates nothing more than his or her interest in attempting to discover the truth that underlies everything.

To examine the nature of physical reality, we must do so from a level above it. Einstein said that “we can never solve a problem in the same level of consciousness that created it.” We have to advance to a higher level of understanding to deal with a problem powerfully.

All things psychological have a spiritual basis behind them. Reality is ultimately the result of spiritual factors.

The Metaphysics was divided into three parts, now regarded as the traditional branches of Western metaphysics, called (1) ontology, (2) theology and (3) universal science. There were also some smaller, perhaps tangential matters: a philosophical lexicon, an attempt to define philosophy in general and several extracts from the Physics repeated verbatim.

Ontology is the study of existence.

Theology means the study of God or the gods and of questions about the divine.

Universal science is supposed to be the study of so-called first principles, which underlie all other inquiries; an example of such a principle is the law of non-contradiction: A = A, A not = B, Not both A and B. In other words, the elementary laws of logic as Aristotle knew them.

There is an absolute science to all things spiritual and it isn’t mysterious at all. It is only mysterious according to the level of awareness we have. The higher our level of awareness is, the more the mystery is resolved. – Mind Reality

Metaphysics is Mind Science, Universal Science and Spiritual Science.

Source: Enoch Tan – Author of Mind Reality

Philosophy – The Very First Subject Of The Mind

The term philosophy comes from the Greek word “Φιλοσοφία” (philo-sophia), which means “love of wisdom”.The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy defines it as the study of “the most fundamental and general concepts and principles involved in thought, action, and reality“.

Thales believed that there was an underlying unified system that could explain all things. He believed that all things are comprised of an active or ‘alive’ core, that water was the medium common to everything, that things change to and from and into each other, in a rational system of repetitive cycles.

Thales relied on this idea of unified rational repetitive cycles to make the first exact prediction of the date of an eclipse. He also predicted the size of an olive crop harvest, benefiting personally by standing by with a large supply of wine presses to sell.

More importantly, though, Thales was the first to do both of these using observation and deduction only, without referencing an outside god, goddess, religious or scientific system.

Immanuel Kant wrote his Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) in an attempt to reconcile the conflicting approaches of rationalism and empiricism and establish a new groundwork for studying metaphysics.

What were once philosophical pursuits have evolved into the modern day fields of psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics (among others).

Just like psychology (science of psyche) which has evolved into a field of its own from philosophy, metaphysics can also be considered a realm of study in its own class because it is the science of spirit.

Everything subject can be fundamentally considered as philosophy. We start primarily by thinking about something and contemplating on how it works and why it is so. This is how all science begins. We first have a concept or idea about something and then only later when the technology is developed can we deal with it in a more physically scientific way.

Even from the very early ages in history, the mind was talked about by Plato through his concept of the world of thoughts. Socrates emphasized the importance of the mind through his passionate discussions regarding reasoning and introspection.

Philosophy can be considered the very first subject of the mind.

Source: Enoch Tan – Author of Mind Reality

Neuroscience – Science Of the Physical Aspect of Mind

In order to understand the workings of the mind/ brain from a holistic and integrative point of view, we also need to look into the physiological and biological aspects of it.

Neuroscience is the term that incorporates all the related subjects that study the brain and the nervous system which is basically the extension of the brain’s communication network infrastructure. Neurology, neurosurgery, neuro-technology and other neuro-related subjects fall under the category of neuroscience.

Every function of the mind has it’s organic member (the brain) to carry it out. The mind is the spiritual aspect of consciousness while the brain is the physical reflection of the mind. Every time your mind thinks a thought, the co-responding neurons will fire in your brain and communicate that thought to your body which is the subconscious mind.

The better the condition of your brain, the better your mind can function in 3D reality. The same is true vice versa. The mind will affect the brain, and the brain will affect the mind. But it’s very important to know that the mind is superior to the brain. This is because the mind has the higher power of causality relative to the physical aspects of the self such as the brain. The 3D level of reality is always subject to the intents of the spiritual level of reality.

Every neurological disorder has its roots in psychological conditions. However the problem with psychiatry is that psychiatry is rooted in the false assumption that the brain rules over the mind and that a person’s mental state is subject to the conditions of the brain. The mind is superior to the brain and therefore all “chemical imbalances” are actually caused by a faulty state of mind, the chemical imbalances are not intrinsic to the brain.

When psychiatry looks to drugs as the solution, they are not looking at the root cause of the problem which is usually something psycho spiritual rather than something purely biological. Using medical drugs to suppress what your body is signaling to you via negative symptoms, is simply just a way of temporality masking the problems. The real problems will resurface once the patient builds tolerance to the drugs. And higher doses will be required to mask the symptoms.

The real reason why side effects occur in psychiatry (even severe ones) when a person takes psychiatric drugs is because the body is rejecting the chemicals while it is trying to bring to awareness of THE REAL PROBLEM in a person’s life that he needs to deal with that can’t be escaped by taking drugs. Medical drugs are an escape from the real problems that the patient is facing.

The worst case scenario is when a doctor sentences a patient to spend a lifetime of medication so they never get to face the real issue that must be dealt with in order to learn and grow from it.

The best way to deal with any situation is always holistically, and in the right order as well. When you work with a situation from a higher level like the psychological or spiritual level, it may be resolved long before even needing to proceed to the lower levels such as biological intervention.

Having the awareness of how the mind and brain affect one another from both sides is the power of holistic perspective. Always remember, the mind is above the brain because mind rules over matter.

Reference: Enoch Tan – Author Of Mind Reality

Note: This is not the original article, I have modified the article to add some important points in that I feel were important.

Psychology – The Study Of the Mind

Psychology comes from two words: psyche and logos. Psyche is the Greek word which means soul or spirit, loosely translated as mind. Logos means knowledge or study like all “logies”. The first Greek letter psi in psyche is used as the international symbol for psychology. Hence, Psychology was originally defined as: the study of the mind.

Psychology is the understanding of how our perceptions govern our behavior. Everything in our lives is affected by how we think.

Psychology is about understanding people and the human mind.

Human nature is the same today as it was during ancient history.

So the principles of psychology are timeless. What you know about psychology will always apply.

“A fundamental understanding of the human psyche is the essential key to successful magic” – Robert-Houdin (Father of Modern Magic)

Just because you understand psychology doesn’t mean you will always use it, you have to keep it’s understanding in awareness for it to be useful.

Psychology consists of subtle differences and big distinctions. It is the little psychological subtleties that make all the difference.

The greatest use of knowledge in psychology is for self/social awareness, communication, marketing, and personal development.

Psychology works on assumptions. Other people’s assumptions follow your assumptions. Other people’s expectations are set by you and everything is the result of your communication.

When you assume the appearance of power, people will give it to you. Leaders are self-appointed. Authority is 80% taken and 20% given.

Everything is Psychology. Everything is affected by psychological factors and those factors govern all that goes on, whether you choose to take control of them or not. With great knowledge of psychology in hand, you will have the power to rule over your own world.

Reference: – Enoch Tan – Author of Mind Reality

Note: I changed certain aspects of this article to make it a reflection of my truth.

Emotional Mastery 

First of all, recognize that there are people and corporations with a strong vested interest in conditioning you to maintain the (false) belief that you need some kind of external validation to feel a certain way. Marketers spend billions of dollars each year to convince you that you need to drink their soda, eat their food, wear their clothing, drive their cars, and shop at their stores to feel happy, cool, fashionable, popular, confident, successful, etc. Who benefits most when you adopt the belief that you need to dress a certain way to feel fashionable or drive a certain car to feel cool?

When you understand that you have the innate ability to consciously direct your thoughts to create any feeling you want, whenever you want, you’re not going to make such people rich. But you will be much more free, since you’ll gain the power of conscious control over your own emotional states. This is a skill that takes practice, but it is a learnable one. For example, in a matter of minutes I can get myself to feel any emotion I want, and for those I’ve already anchored, I can put myself into that state in less than 5 seconds. This is nothing unique — experienced actors can do it too. If an actor can laugh uproariously or cry rivers of tears or shout with intense anger over something completely fake, then you can certainly learn to be 100% confident on que as well (and really experience the genuine emotion).

My favorite emotion is the state of feeling “unstoppable,” which is one I anchored at a Tony Robbins seminar. Anchoring means conditioning a specific emotional state to be linked to a simple trigger, just as Pavlov conditioned his dog to link getting fed with the sound of bell. So if I make a certain movement, I automatically surge into this emotional state within a few seconds. In my old Tae Kwon Do studio, I noticed another student firing off an anchor several times during sparring matches. The tennis player Andre Agassi and the basketball player Byron Scott both used emotional anchoring in their athletic careers, and I’ve read that emotional conditioning has been used by German Olympic teams with outstanding results (the U.S. Olympic teams are generally much further behind in this area). Anchoring is well covered in Tony Robbins Unlimited Power book, and he also takes you through it directly in his live seminars and he covers it in his Personal Power audio program. Something really cool I discovered is that once I’ve conditioned an anchor, I don’t even have to physically fire it off. If I merely imagine myself making the particular motion, it still works. So Weds night when I was being introduced as the speaker, I mentally imagined myself firing off my trigger for confidence, and by the time I reached the lectern I was feeling 100% confident. Yes, 100% — no nervousness or self-doubt whatsoever.

Advertisers use anchoring on you all the time. This is why Pepsi will pay someone like Michael Jackson $20 million to be in a 30-second commercial (OK, so that was years ago). They want to condition you to link the emotions you get from hearing a particular song to their product. This emotional conditioning works a lot better than trying to logically argue why you should consume sugar water and chemicals. And it absolutely works … to the tune of billions.

Dr. Wayne Dyer said that when he was learning about self-actualization in college, a professor posed this question: If a totally self-actualizing person unknowingly showed up to a formal event wearing overly casual attire, how would s/he react? The answer: S/he wouldn’t even notice. That’s the state of total emotional mastery, where no external event can knock you into a negative emotional state. A mind like water.

The problem isn’t that external events have control over your emotions. The problem is believing that they do. Abandoning this belief and realizing that you have the innate ability to control how you feel at any given moment, regardless of your circumstances, is the first step to emotional mastery. Events are neutral. What causes you to feel a certain way is how you interpret an event, how you think about it. The same event (even one so serious as the death of someone close to you) will be interpreted differently by different people. You were taught to represent certain events to yourself as tragic, while other people on this planet were taught to celebrate those same events. The event itself has no meaning but the meaning you assign to it, and that act of assigning meaning (whether done consciously or unconsciously) is what causes you to feel a certain way.

Once you understand this, you can begin to take conscious control over these assignments. When stricken with a terminal illness, some people interpret it as terrible and go into a deep depression. Others interpret it as a challenge and find a way to overcome the illness. And still others see it as a wake up call to reevaluate their priorities and make the best possible use of the time they have left, developing deeper bonds with the people around them and living much more fully. To some people it’s an ending, while to others it’s a new beginning. But this doesn’t have to be a subconscious reaction — it can be a conscious choice. Whenever something happens that you would normally say “makes you depressed,” you can choose to find and assign an alternate interpretation that makes you feel empowered instead of disempowered. Instead of failure you can see a learning experience. Instead of a loss, you can focus on deepening your feelings of gratitude for what you do have. Instead of rejection you can see a temporary mismatch and a renewed opportunity to find the perfect fit. Just because TV teaches you to feel a certain way in response to a certain event doesn’t mean you have to blindly accept that interpretation, especially since the TV business benefits when you feel down and thereby tune in to try to change your emotional state.

Between stimilus and response lies the opportunity for conscious choice. You can be fired from your job and turn it into a victory instead of a defeat (Lee Iacoca did). You can go bankrupt and move on to even greater wealth (Donald Trump did). You can be injured to the point of disfiguration and turn it into an advantage to inspire others (W. Mitchell did). You can be dumped by your girlfriend, feel suicidal, and yet still bounce back (Billy Joel did). And on the other hand, you can enjoy outstanding external success and yet abuse yourself to the point of death (John Belushi did).

For any seemingly “negative” event, you can find someone who turned it into an empowering experience. And for any “positive” event, you can find someone who interpreted it in such a way as to destroy themselves. Avoid the trap of letting events subconsciously control you, and use the power of your consciousness to decide your own interpretation of events for the greatest good of all.

When you reach the point of becoming independent of external events, you’re truly free. This is the state of being detached from external events, knowing that you can exert direct conscious control over your thoughts instead of needing something external to do it for you. Dr. Wayne Dyer refers to it as being “independent of the good opinion of others.” No matter what happens to you, you can still choose to be at peace.

Note: This article was written by Steve Pavlina in 2004.